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Saturday, October 10, 2009

Back Up and Restore a MySQL Database

Back up From the Command Line (using mysqldump)

If you have shell or telnet access to your web server, you can backup your MySQL data by using the mysqldump command. This command connects to the MySQL server and creates an SQL dump file. The dump file contains the SQL statements necessary to re-create the database. Here is the proper syntax:

$ mysqldump --opt -u [uname] -p[pass] [dbname] > [backupfile.sql]

  • [uname] Your database username

  • [pass] The password for your database (note there is no space between -p and the password)

  • [dbname] The name of your database

  • [backupfile.sql] The filename for your database backup

  • [--opt] The mysqldump option

For example, to backup a database named 'Tutorials' with the username 'root' and with no password to a file tut_backup.sql, you should accomplish this command:

$ mysqldump -u root -p Tutorials > tut_backup.sql

This command will backup the 'Tutorials' database into a file called tut_backup.sql which will contain all the SQL statements needed to re-create the database.

With mysqldump command you can specify certain tables of your database you want to backup. For example, to back up only php_tutorials and asp_tutorials tables from the 'Tutorials' database accomplish the command below. Each table name has to be separated by space.

$ mysqldump -u root -p Tutorials php_tutorials asp_tutorials > tut_backup.sql

Sometimes it is necessary to back up more that one database at once. In this case you can use the --database option followed by the list of databases you would like to backup. Each database name has to be separated by space.

$ mysqldump -u root -p --databases Tutorials Articles Comments > content_backup.sql

If you want to back up all the databases in the server at one time you should use the --all-databases option. It tells MySQL to dump all the databases it has in storage.

$ mysqldump -u root -p --all-databases > alldb_backup.sql

The mysqldump command has also some other useful options:

--add-drop-table: Tells MySQL to add a DROP TABLE statement before each CREATE TABLE in the dump.

--no-data: Dumps only the database structure, not the contents.

--add-locks: Adds the LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES statements you can see in the dump file.

The mysqldump command has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of using mysqldump are that it is simple to use and it takes care of table locking issues for you. The disadvantage is that the command locks tables. If the size of your tables is very big mysqldump can lock out users for a long period of time.

Back up your MySQL Database with Compress

If your mysql database is very big, you might want to compress the output of mysqldump. Just use the mysql backup command below and pipe the output to gzip, then you will get the output as gzip file.

$ mysqldump -u [uname] -p[pass] [dbname] | gzip -9 > [backupfile.sql.gz]

If you want to extract the .gz file, use the command below:

$ gunzip [backupfile.sql.gz]

Restoring your MySQL Database

Above we backup the Tutorials database into tut_backup.sql file. To re-create the Tutorials database you should follow two steps:

  • Create an appropriately named database on the target machine

  • Load the file using the mysql command:

$ mysql -u [uname] -p[pass] [db_to_restore] < [backupfile.sql]

Have a look how you can restore your tut_backup.sql file to the Tutorials database.

$ mysql -u root -p Tutorials < tut_backup.sql

To restore compressed backup files you can do the following:

gunzip < [backupfile.sql.gz] | mysql -u [uname] -p[pass] [dbname]

If you need to restore a database that already exists, you'll need to use mysqlimport command. The syntax for mysqlimport is as follows:

mysqlimport -u [uname] -p[pass] [dbname] [backupfile.sql]

Disable the Enter key on HTML form

How to disable the Enter key on HTML form

Normally when you have a form with several text input fields, it is undesirable that the form gets submitted when the user hits ENTER in a field. Some people are pressing the enter key instead of the tab key to get to the next field. They often do that by accident or they are accustomed to terminate field input that way. If a browser regards hitting ENTER in a text input field as a request to submit the form immediately, there is no sure way to prevent that.

Add the below script to the <head> section of your page. The following code disables the enter key so that visitors of your web page can only use the tab key to get to the next field.

<script type="text/javascript">

function stopRKey(evt) {

  var evt = (evt) ? evt : ((event) ? event : null);

  var node = (evt.target) ? evt.target : ((evt.srcElement) ? evt.srcElement : null);

  if ((evt.keyCode == 13) && (node.type=="text"))  {return false;}


document.onkeypress = stopRKey;


Wednesday, October 7, 2009

Flash image upload with PHP

Flash Code
System.security.allowDomain("www.tshirtsetc.co.uk");  import flash.net.FileReference;    // The listener object listens for FileReference events.  var listener:Object = new Object();    listener.onSelect = function(selectedFile:FileReference):Void {      upWin._x = 200;    selectedFile.upload("./upload.php");  };    // the file is starting to upload.  listener.onOpen = function(selectedFile:FileReference):Void {    _root.upWin.results_txt.text = String("Uploading " + selectedFile.name + "\n");  };    listener.onHTTPError = function(file:FileReference, httpError:Number):Void {      _root.upWin.results_txt.text = String("HTTPError number: "+httpError +"\nFile: "+ file.name);  }    listener.onIOError = function(file:FileReference):Void {   _root.upWin.results_txt.text = String("IOError: "+ file.name);  }    listener.onSecurityError = function(file:FileReference, errorString:String):Void {      _root.upWin.results_txt.text = String("SecurityError: "+SecurityError+"\nFile: "+ file.name);      }    listener.onProgress = function(file:FileReference, bytesLoaded:Number, bytesTotal:Number):Void {   upWin.loadBar._width = Number(bytesLoaded)/Number(bytesTotal)*300;  }    // the file has uploaded  listener.onComplete = function(selectedFile:FileReference):Void {    upWin.results_txt.text = String("Upload finished.\nNow downloading " + selectedFile.name + " to player\n");        if(position_txt.text == String("Front")){    attachMovie("trans", "transHolder", -16161, {_x:150, _y:120});     downloadImage1(selectedFile.name);    }else{    if(position_txt.text == String("Back")){     attachMovie("trans2", "transHolder2", -16162, {_x:450, _y:120});       downloadImage2(selectedFile.name);    }else{    if(position_txt.text == String("LSleeve")){     attachMovie("trans3", "transHolder3", -16163, {_x:150, _y:120});       downloadImage3(selectedFile.name);    }else{    if(position_txt.text == String("RSleeve")){     attachMovie("trans4", "transHolder4", -16164, {_x:450, _y:120});       downloadImage4(selectedFile.name);    }    }    }    }    Itotal_txt.text = Number(3.00);    _root.upWin._x = 2000;  };    var imageFile:FileReference = new FileReference();  imageFile.addListener(listener);     imageMovie.uploadBtn.onPress = uploadImage;  imageMovie.uploadBtn2.onPress = uploadImage;  imageMovie2.uploadBtn3.onPress = uploadImage;  imageMovie2.uploadBtn4.onPress = uploadImage;    // Call the uploadImage() function, opens a file browser dialog.  function uploadImage(event:Object):Void {    imageFile.browse([{description: "Image Files", extension: "*.jpg;*.gif;*.png"}]);  }    // If the image does not download, the event object's total property  // will equal -1. In that case, display am error message  function imageDownloaded(event:Object):Void {    if(event.total == -1) {      _root.upWin.results_txt.text = String("error");        }  }    // show uploaded image in scrollPane  function downloadImage1(file:Object):Void {   transHolder.umbongo.loadMovie("./uploaded/" + file);  }    // show uploaded image in scrollPane  function downloadImage2(file:Object):Void {   transHolder2.umbongo2.loadMovie("./uploaded/" + file);  }    // show uploaded image in scrollPane  function downloadImage3(file:Object):Void {   transHolder3.umbongo3.loadMovie("./uploaded/" + file);  }    // show uploaded image in scrollPane  function downloadImage4(file:Object):Void {   var randomNum:Number = Math.round(Math.random()*(10000-0))+0;   transHolder4.umbongo4.loadMovie("./uploaded/" + file);  }

Server Side - PHP Code
<?php    move_uploaded_file($_FILES['Filedata']['tmp_name'], './uploaded/'.$_FILES['Filedata']['name']);  copy('./uploaded/'.$_FILES['Filedata']['name'], './timeStamped/'.time().$_FILES['Filedata']['name']);    ?>

For more information goto http://livedocs.adobe.com/flash/9.0/main/wwhelp/wwhimpl/common/html/wwhelp.htm?context=LiveDocs_Parts&file=00001054.html

Tuesday, October 6, 2009

Understanding mod_rewrite Directives Convertion

Converting mod_rewrite directives


The URL Rewriting engine in Abyss Web Server is comparable to the mod_rewrite module in Apache. Both offer similar features but they are not fully equivalent.

This article explains how to convert mod_rewrite directives to URL Rewriting parameters in Abyss Web Server. In most cases, the conversion straightforward. But in some rare cases, and for some of the most obscure features of mod_rewrite, conversion is possible provided that you change or rewrite the rules.

mod_rewrite directives syntax

mod_rewrite directives are put in .htaccess files (in subdirectories) or in the main configuration file httpd.conf.

The following directives are related to mod_rewrite and will be used for conversions:




A typical configuration of mod_rewrite looks as follows:

# Some comments

RewriteBase PATH




RewriteBase is optional. By default, the base path is the current location of the directory where the .htaccess file is. Each time a RewriteRule is found, the base path is updated with the parameter following the directive. The base path is useful when processing RewriteRule parameters.

RewriteCond is also optional. 0 or more RewriteCond directives can precede a given RewriteRule declaration.

RewriteRule is mandatory and ends the declaration of a rule. More sequences of RewriteBase/RewriteCond/RewriteRule could follow to define other rules.

Lines which start with # are comments and should be ignored. Lines referencing other directives are also to be ignored during the conversion as they are not related to mod_rewrite.

Starting the conversion

For each RewriteRule directive, you should create a URL Rewriting rule.

  • Locate the RewriteRule you'll convert.

  • Locate all the RewriteCond directives that precede it directly (there are 0 or more of them).

  • Locate the last RewriteBase directive preceding the RewriteRule you'll convert. You may not find a RewriteBase in some cases.

  • If you've found a RewriteBase directive, the base path of the current rule will be the path that is referenced in that directive. Otherwise, the base path is the virtual path of the directory where the .htaccess file you're converting is located. For example, if there is no RewriteBase, if the .htaccess file you're converting is inside C:\sites\firstsite\forum, and if your Documents Path is C:\sites\firstsite\, then the base path is /forum.

  • Now open Abyss Web Server console, press the Configure associated with the host you'll add the URL rewriting rules to, and select URL Rewriting.

  • Press Add in URL Rewriting rules table to create a new rule.

Conversion of the RewriteRule directive

  • The RewriteRule directive has the following syntax:


    [FLAGS] is optional an may not be always present.

    REGEX is a regular expression. If it starts with ^ but the next character is not /, the regular expression is referencing a relative path. In such a case, you must prepend it with the base path of the rule before using it in Abyss Web Server.

    For example, if the base path is /forum and the RewriteRule directive is:

    RewriteRule ^test/(.*)$ index.php?testId=$1

    then the regular expression we'll use will be:


    If REPLACEMENT does not start with / and is not full URL (starting with http:// or similar), the base path should be prepended too. In the above example, the REPLACEMENT that must be taken into account is:


  • In the Abyss Web Server console, enter in Virtual Path Regular Expression the regular expression used in RewriteRule (after prepending it with the base path if it starts with ^ but the next character is not /).

  • Enter in Redirect to the replacement string used in RewriteRule (after prepending it with the base path if it does not start / and is not full URL).

  • If the RewriteRule directive has flags, convert each one of them as explained below:

    chain/C (chained with next rule)

    From Apache manual: "This flag chains the current rule with the next rule (which itself can be chained with the following rule, and so on). This has the following effect: if a rule matches, then processing continues as usual - the flag has no effect. If the rule does not match, then all following chained rules are skipped." No direct conversion is possible unless you reorder your URL Rewriting rules and correctly set the Next Action in Abyss Web Server for each rule.

    cookie/CO=NAME:VAL:domain[:lifetime[:path]] (set cookie)

    No equivalent in Abyss Web Server.

    env/E=VAR:VAL (set environment variable)

    No equivalent in Abyss Web Server.

    forbidden/F (force URL to be forbidden)

    Set If this rule matches to Report an error to the client and set Status Code to 403 - Forbidden.

    gone/G (force URL to be gone)

    Set If this rule matches to Report an error to the client and set Status Code to 410 - Gone.

    last/L (last rule)

    Set Next Action to Stop matching

    next/N (next round)

    Set Next Action to Stop matching.

    nocase/NC (no case)

    Uncheck Case Sensitive

    noescape/NE (no URI escaping of output)

    Uncheck Escape Redirection Location.

    nosubreq/NS (not for internal sub-requests)

    Uncheck Apply to subrequests too.

    proxy/P (force proxy)

    No equivalent in Abyss Web Server.

    passthrough/PT (pass through to next handler)

    No equivalent in Abyss Web Server.

    qsappend/QSA (query string append)

    Check Append Query String.

    redirect/R[=code] (force redirect)

    Set If this rule matches to Perform an external redirection and set Status Code to the value of code if available or to 302.

    skip/S=num (skip next rule(s))

    From Apache manual: "This flag forces the rewriting engine to skip the next num rules in sequence, if the current rule matches." No direct conversion is possible unless you reorder your URL Rewriting rules and correctly set the Next Action in Abyss Web Server for each rule.

    type/T=MIME-type (force MIME type)

    No equivalent in Abyss Web Server.

Conversion of the RewriteCond directives

Now it's time to convert the RewriteCond directives associated with the RewriteRule we're working on. Remember that only the RewriteCond immediately preceding the RewriteRule are to be taken into account. If there are no RewriteCond directives, conversion is over.

  • A RewriteCond directive has the form:

    RewriteCond %{VARIABLECOND [FLAGS]

    If the first argument of the RewriteCond you're converting contains a string which is not conforming to the syntax %{VARIABLE}, it will be impossible to convert the mod_rewrite rule to an Abyss Web Server URL Rewriting rule.

    [FLAGS] are optional and may not be always present.

    For each RewriteCond, press Add in the Conditions table and enter the value of VARIABLE in the Variable field.

  • If COND is a regular expression preceded by !, select Does not match with in Operator. If it is a regular expression not preceded by !, set Operator to Matches with. Next enter the regular expression in Regular Expression field.

  • Otherwise, COND is one of the following tests:

    <VALUE (lexicographically precedes)

    Set Operator to < and enter VALUE in the field Value.


    Set Operator to >= and enter VALUE in the field Value.

    >VALUE (lexicographically follows)

    Set Operator to > and enter VALUE in the field Value.


    Set Operator to <= and enter VALUE in the field Value.

    =VALUE (lexicographically equal)

    Set Operator to = and enter VALUE in the field Value.


    Set Operator to Is different from and enter VALUE in the field Value.

    -d (is directory)

    Set Operator to Is a directory.


    Set Operator to Is not a directory.

    -f (is regular file)

    Set Operator to Is a file.


    Set Operator to Is not a file.

    -s (is regular file, with size)

    Set Operator to Exists and is not an empty file.


    Set Operator to Does not exist and is an empty file.

    -l/!-l (is/isn't symbolic link)

    No equivalent in Abyss Web Server.

    -F/!-F (is/isn't existing file, via subrequest)

    No equivalent in Abyss Web Server.

    -U/!-U (is/isn't existing URL, via subrequest)

    No equivalent in Abyss Web Server.

  • If FLAGS are present, their conversion should be done as follows:

    nocase/NC (no case)

    Uncheck Case Sensitive.

    ornext/OR (or next condition)

    The only case where a direct conversion is possible is when you have two or more consecutive RewriteCond operating on the same variable. In such a case, the regular expressions of each condition have to be concatenated with a | sign. For example:

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Mozilla [OR]

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Opera [OR]

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Lynx

    could be combined in a single RewriteCond:

    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} Mozilla|Opera|Lynx

    and thus it suffices to have a single condition on variable HTTP_USER_AGENT which checks if its value matches with Mozilla|Opera|Lynx.

Monday, October 5, 2009

Mod-Rewrite Tricks and Tips - .Htaccess rewrites rules

If you really want to take a look, check out the mod_rewrite.c and mod_rewrite.h files.

Be aware that mod_rewrite (RewriteRule, RewriteBase, and RewriteCond) code is executed for each and every HTTP request that accesses a file in or below the directory where the code resides, so it’s always good to limit the code to certain circumstances if readily identifiable.

For example, to limit the next 5 RewriteRules to only be applied to .html and .php files, you can use the following code, which tests if the url does not end in .html or .php and if it doesn’t, it will skip the next 5 RewriteRules.

RewriteRule !\.(html|php)$ - [S=5]  
RewriteRule ^.*-(vf12|vf13|vf5|vf35|vf1|vf10|vf33|vf8).+$ - [S=1]

.htaccess rewrite examples should begin with:

Options +FollowSymLinks     
RewriteEngine On RewriteBase /

Require the www

Options +FollowSymLinks 
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.yourdomain\.com$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.yourdomain.com/$1 [R=301,L]

Loop Stopping Code

Sometimes your rewrites cause infinite loops, stop it with one of these rewrite code snippets.

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/(stats/|missing\.html|failed_auth\.html|error/).* [NC]  
RewriteRule .* - [L]  
RewriteCond %{ENV:REDIRECT_STATUS} 200
RewriteRule .* - [L]

Cache-Friendly File Names

This is probably my favorite, and I use it on every site I work on. It allows me to update my javascript and css files in my visitors cache’s simply by naming them differently in the html, on the server they stay the same name. This rewrites all files for /zap/j/anything-anynumber.js to /zap/j/anything.js and /zap/c/anything-anynumber.css to /zap/c/anything.css

RewriteRule ^zap/(j|c)/([a-z]+)-([0-9]+)\.(js|css)$ /zap/$1/$2.$4 [L]  

SEO friendly link for non-flash browsers

When you use flash on your site and you properly supply a link to download flash that shows up for non-flash aware browsers, it is nice to use a shortcut to keep your code clean and your external links to a minimum. This code allows me to link to site.com/getflash/ for non-flash aware browsers.

RewriteRule ^getflash/?$ http://www.adobe.com/shockwave/download/download.cgi?P1_Prod_Version=ShockwaveFlash [NC,L,R=307]  

Removing the Query_String

On many sites, the page will be displayed for both page.html and page.html?anything=anything, which hurts your SEO with duplicate content. An easy way to fix this issue is to redirect external requests containing a query string to the same uri without the query_string.

RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^GET\ /.*\;.*\ HTTP/  
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} !^$
RewriteRule .* http://www.askapache.com%{REQUEST_URI}? [R=301,L]

Sending requests to a php script

This .htaccess rewrite example invisibly rewrites requests for all Adobe pdf files to be handled by /cgi-bin/pdf-script.php

RewriteRule ^(.+)\.pdf$  /cgi-bin/pdf-script.php?file=$1.pdf [L,NC,QSA]  

Setting the language variable based on Client

For sites using multiviews or with multiple language capabilities, it is nice to be able to send the correct language automatically based on the clients preferred language.

RewriteCond %{HTTP:Accept-Language} ^.*(de|es|fr|it|ja|ru|en).*$ [NC]  
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ - [env=prefer-language:%1]

Deny Access To Everyone Except PHP fopen

This allows access to all files by php fopen, but denies anyone else.

RewriteEngine On  
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^.+$ [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F,L]

If you are looking for ways to block or deny specific requests/visitors, then you should definately read Blacklist with mod_rewrite. I give it a 10/10

Deny access to anything in a subfolder except php fopen

This can be very handy if you want to serve media files or special downloads but only through a php proxy script.

RewriteEngine On  
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{THE_REQUEST} ^[A-Z]{3,9}\ /([^/]+)/.*\ HTTP [NC]
RewriteRule .* - [F,L]

Require no www

Options +FollowSymLinks  
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^yourdomain\.com$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://yourdomain.com/$1 [R=301,L]

Check for a key in QUERY_STRING

Uses a RewriteCond Directive to check QUERY_STRING for passkey, if it doesn’t find it it redirects all requests for anything in the /logged-in/ directory to the /login.php script.

RewriteEngine On  RewriteBase /  
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} !passkey
RewriteRule ^/logged-in/(.*)$ /login.php [L]

Removes the QUERY_STRING from the URL

If the QUERY_STRING has any value at all besides blank than the?at the end of /login.php? tells mod_rewrite to remove the QUERY_STRING from login.php and redirect.

RewriteEngine On  RewriteBase /  
RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} .
RewriteRule ^login.php /login.php? [L]

Fix for infinite loops

An error message related to this isRequest exceeded the limit of 10 internal redirects due to probable configuration error. Use 'LimitInternalRecursion' to increase the limit if necessary. Use 'LogLevel debug' to get a backtrace.or you may seeRequest exceeded the limit,probable configuration error,Use 'LogLevel debug' to get a backtrace, orUse 'LimitInternalRecursion' to increase the limit if necessary

RewriteCond %{ENV:REDIRECT_STATUS} 200  
RewriteRule .* - [L]

External Redirect .php files to .html files (SEO friendly)

RewriteRule ^(.*)\.php$ /$1.html [R=301,L]  

Internal Redirect .php files to .html files (SEO friendly)

Redirects all files that end in .html to be served from filename.php so it looks like all your pages are .html but really they are .php

RewriteRule ^(.*)\.html$ $1.php [R=301,L]  

block access to files during certain hours of the day

Options +FollowSymLinks  
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
# If the hour is 16 (4 PM) Then deny all access
RewriteCond %{TIME_HOUR} ^16$
RewriteRule ^.*$ - [F,L]

Rewrite underscores to hyphens for SEO URL

Options +FollowSymLinks  
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /  
RewriteRule !\.(html|php)$ - [S=4]
RewriteRule ^([^_]*)_([^_]*)_([^_]*)_([^_]*)_(.*)$ $1-$2-$3-$4-$5 [E=uscor:Yes]
RewriteRule ^([^_]*)_([^_]*)_([^_]*)_(.*)$ $1-$2-$3-$4 [E=uscor:Yes]
RewriteRule ^([^_]*)_([^_]*)_(.*)$ $1-$2-$3 [E=uscor:Yes]
RewriteRule ^([^_]*)_(.*)$ $1-$2 [E=uscor:Yes]  
RewriteCond %{ENV:uscor} ^Yes$
RewriteRule (.*) http://d.com/$1 [R=301,L]

Require the www without hardcoding

Options +FollowSymLinks  
RewriteEngine On RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www\.[a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6} [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ([a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6})$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

Require no subdomain

RewriteEngine On  
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([a-z-]+\.[a-z]{2,6})$ [NC]
RewriteRule ^/(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

Require no subdomain

RewriteEngine On  
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} \.([^\.]+\.[^\.0-9]+)$
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://%1/$1 [R=301,L]

Redirecting Wordpress Feeds to Feedburner

RewriteEngine On  
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/feed\.gif$
RewriteRule .* - [L]  
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} !^.*(FeedBurner|FeedValidator) [NC]
RewriteRule ^feed/?.*$ http://feeds.feedburner.com/apache/htaccess [L,R=302]  
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php [L]

Only allow GET and PUT Request Methods

RewriteEngine On  
RewriteBase /
RewriteRule .* - [F]

Prevent Files image/file hotlinking and bandwidth stealing

RewriteEngine On  
RewriteBase /
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$
RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://(www\.)?askapache.com/.*$ [NC]
RewriteRule \.(gif|jpg|swf|flv|png)$ /feed/ [R=302,L]

Stop browser prefetching

RewriteEngine On  
SetEnvIfNoCase X-Forwarded-For .+ proxy=yes
SetEnvIfNoCase X-moz prefetch no_access=yes  
# block pre-fetch requests with X-moz headers
RewriteCond %{ENV:no_access} yes
RewriteRule .* - [F,L]

27 Apache Request Methods for rewritecond in htaccess


The Request Method, as supplied in the REQUEST_METHOD meta-variable, identifies the processing method to be applied by the script in producing a response.

The script author can choose to implement the methods most appropriate for the particular application.

If the script receives a request with a method it does not support it SHOULD reject it with an error.

List of the 27 Request Methods Recognized by Apache

  1. GET

  2. PUT

  3. POST




  7. TRACE

  8. PATCH



  11. MKCOL

  12. COPY

  13. MOVE

  14. LOCK

  15. UNLOCK





  20. UPDATE

  21. LABEL

  22. REPORT




  26. MERGE



The GET method indicates that the script should produce a document based on the meta-variable values. By convention, the GET method is ’safe’ and ‘idempotent’ and SHOULD NOT have the significance of taking an action other than producing a document.

The meaning of the GET method may be modified and refined by protocol-specific meta-variables.


The POST method is used to request the script perform processing and produce a document based on the data in the request message-body, in addition to meta-variable values. A common use is form submission in HTML [18], intended to initiate processing by the script that has a permanent affect, such a change in a database.

The script MUST check the value of the CONTENT_LENGTH variable before reading the attached message-body, and SHOULD check the CONTENT_TYPE value before processing it.


The HEAD method requests the script to do sufficient processing to return the response header fields, without providing a response message-body. The script MUST NOT provide a response message-body for a HEAD request. If it does, then the server MUST discard the message-body when reading the response from the script.


The OPTIONS method represents a request for information about the communication options available on the request/response chain identified by the Request-URI. This method allows the client to determine the options and/or requirements associated with a resource, or the capabilities of a server, without implying a resource action or initiating a resource retrieval.

Responses to this method are not cacheable.

If the OPTIONS request includes an entity-body (as indicated by the presence of Content-Length or Transfer-Encoding), then the media type MUST be indicated by a Content-Type field. Although this specification does not define any use for such a body, future extensions to HTTP might use the OPTIONS body to make more detailed queries on the server. A server that does not support such an extension MAY discard the request body.

If the Request-URI is an asterisk (“*”), the OPTIONS request is intended to apply to the server in general rather than to a specific resource. Since a server’s communication options typically depend on the resource, the “*” request is only useful as a “ping” or “no-op” type of method; it does nothing beyond allowing the client to test the capabilities of the server. For example, this can be used to test a proxy for HTTP/1.1 compliance (or lack thereof). If the Request-URI is not an asterisk, the OPTIONS request applies only to the options that are available when communicating with that resource.

A 200 response SHOULD include any header fields that indicate optional features implemented by the server and applicable to that resource (e.g., Allow), possibly including extensions not defined by this specification. The response body, if any, SHOULD also include information about the communication options. The format for such a body is not defined by this specification, but might be defined by future extensions to HTTP. Content negotiation MAY be used to select the appropriate response format. If no response body is included, the response MUST include a Content-Length field with a field-value of “0″.

The Max-Forwards request-header field MAY be used to target a specific proxy in the request chain. When a proxy receives an OPTIONS request on an absoluteURI for which request forwarding is permitted, the proxy MUST check for a Max-Forwards field. If the Max-Forwards field-value is zero (“0″), the proxy MUST NOT forward the message; instead, the proxy SHOULD respond with its own communication options. If the Max-Forwards field-value is an integer greater than zero, the proxy MUST decrement the field-value when it forwards the request. If no Max-Forwards field is present in the request, then the forwarded request MUST NOT include a Max-Forwards field.


The PUT method requests that the enclosed entity be stored under the supplied Request-URI. If the Request-URI refers to an already existing resource, the enclosed entity SHOULD be considered as a modified version of the one residing on the origin server. If the Request-URI does not point to an existing resource, and that URI is capable of being defined as a new resource by the requesting user agent, the origin server can create the resource with that URI. If a new resource is created, the origin server MUST inform the user agent via the 201 (Created) response. If an existing resource is modified, either the 200 (OK) or 204 (No Content) response codes SHOULD be sent to indicate successful completion of the request. If the resource could not be created or modified with the Request-URI, an appropriate error response SHOULD be given that reflects the nature of the problem. The recipient of the entity MUST NOT ignore any Content-* (e.g. Content-Range) headers that it does not understand or implement and MUST return a 501 (Not Implemented) response in such cases.

If the request passes through a cache and the Request-URI identifies one or more currently cached entities, those entries SHOULD be treated as stale. Responses to this method are not cacheable.

The fundamental difference between the POST and PUT requests is reflected in the different meaning of the Request-URI. The URI in a POST request identifies the resource that will handle the enclosed entity. That resource might be a data-accepting process, a gateway to some other protocol, or a separate entity that accepts annotations. In contrast, the URI in a PUT request identifies the entity enclosed with the request — the user agent knows what URI is intended and the server MUST NOT attempt to apply the request to some other resource. If the server desires that the request be applied to a different URI, it MUST send a 301 (Moved Permanently) response; the user agent MAY then make its own decision regarding whether or not to redirect the request.

A single resource MAY be identified by many different URIs. For example, an article might have a URI for identifying “the current version” which is separate from the URI identifying each particular version. In this case, a PUT request on a general URI might result in several other URIs being defined by the origin server.

HTTP/1.1 does not define how a PUT method affects the state of an origin server.

PUT requests MUST obey the message transmission requirements.

Unless otherwise specified for a particular entity-header, the entity-headers in the PUT request SHOULD be applied to the resource created or modified by the PUT.


The DELETE method requests that the origin server delete the resource identified by the Request-URI. This method MAY be overridden by human intervention (or other means) on the origin server. The client cannot be guaranteed that the operation has been carried out, even if the status code returned from the origin server indicates that the action has been completed successfully. However, the server SHOULD NOT indicate success unless, at the time the response is given, it intends to delete the resource or move it to an inaccessible location.

A successful response SHOULD be 200 (OK) if the response includes an entity describing the status, 202 (Accepted) if the action has not yet been enacted, or 204 (No Content) if the action has been enacted but the response does not include an entity.

If the request passes through a cache and the Request-URI identifies one or more currently cached entities, those entries SHOULD be treated as stale. Responses to this method are not cacheable.


The TRACE method is used to invoke a remote, application-layer loop- back of the request message. The final recipient of the request SHOULD reflect the message received back to the client as the entity-body of a 200 (OK) response. The final recipient is either the origin server or the first proxy or gateway to receive a Max-Forwards value of zero (0) in the request (see section 14.31). A TRACE request MUST NOT include an entity.

TRACE allows the client to see what is being received at the other end of the request chain and use that data for testing or diagnostic information. The value of the Via header field (section 14.45) is of particular interest, since it acts as a trace of the request chain. Use of the Max-Forwards header field allows the client to limit the length of the request chain, which is useful for testing a chain of proxies forwarding messages in an infinite loop.

If the request is valid, the response SHOULD contain the entire request message in the entity-body, with a Content-Type of “message/http”. Responses to this method MUST NOT be cached.


This specification reserves the method name CONNECT for use with a proxy that can dynamically switch to being a tunnel e.g. SSL tunneling.
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